38 39 The legal status of Germany under occupation is however unclear, particularly as debellatio in general involves the complete dissolution and annexation of the defeated state, which did not take place and indeed in the berlin Declaration (1945) it was categorically denied that Germany. However, the eastern quarter of Germany was later annexed and its German inhabitants expelled ). Marshall plan edit with the western Allies eventually becoming concerned about the deteriorating economic situation in their " Trizone the us marshall Plan of economic aid to europe was extended also to western Germany in 1948 and a currency reform, which had been prohibited under. The ruhr edit The ruhr Agreement was imposed on the germans as a condition for permitting them to establish the federal Republic of Germany. 40 by controlling the production and distribution of coal and steel (i.e. How much coal and steel the germans themselves would get the International Authority for the ruhr in effect controlled the entire west German economy, much to the dismay of the germans. They were however permitted to send their delegations to the authority after the petersberg agreement. With the west German agreement to join the european coal and Steel Community in order to lift the restrictions imposed by the iar, 41 thus also ensuring French security by perpetuating French access to ruhr coal, 42 the role of the iar was taken over.
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The damage thus caused to the german economy is huge and cannot be assessed in figures. It is extraordinarily regrettable that the new German inventions cannot be protected either, because germany is not a member of the patent Union. Britain has declared that it will respect German inventions regardless of what the peace treaty may say. But America has refused to issue such a declaration. German inventors are therefore not in a position to exploit their own inventions. This puts a considerable brake on German economic development. there were provisions allowing German scientists be detained for intelligence purposes as required. Although the original focus on the exploitation was towards military means, much of the information collected by fiat was quickly adapted commercially to the degree that the office of the Assistant Secretary of State for Occupied Areas requested that the peace treaty with Germany. 37 The us made no attempt to evaluate resume the value of what was taken from Germany, and in the contracts that led to sovereignty for West Germany in 1955 the west Germans had to formally renounce all claims to possible compensation for all types. Gimbel notes that this made a later accounting practically impossible. 34 The property taken in Germany was without regard to the rules of the hague convention, which prohibits the seizure of enemy private property "unless it is susceptible of direct military use 34 but there are legal arguments that the Allied occupation of Germany was.
John Gimbel comes to the first conclusion, in his book " Science technology and Reparations: Exploitation and Plunder in Postwar Germany that the "intellectual reparations" taken by the us (and the uk) amounted to close to 10 billion. The us competitors of German firms were encouraged by the occupation authorities to access all records and facilities. 33 In 1947 the director of the us commerce department's Office of Technical Services stated before congress: "The fundamental justification of this activity is that we won the war and the germans did not. If the germans had won the war, they would be over here in Schenectady and Chicago and Detroit and Pittsburgh, doing the same things." 33 a german report from may 1, 1949 stated that many entrepreneurs preferred not to do research under the current regulations. 25) for fear of the research directly profiting their competitors. The law required detailed reporting to the Allies of all research results. 33 The patents, drawings and physical equipment taken in Germany included such items (or drawings for) as electron microscopes, cosmetics, textile machinery, tape recorders, insecticides, a unique chocolate-wrapping machine, a continuous butter-making machine, a manure spreader, ice skate grinders, paper napkin machines, "and other technologies —. 35 Konrad Adenauer stated: According to a statement made by an American expert, the patents formerly belonging to ig farben have given the American chemical industry a lead of at least 10 years.
However, the Allies disallowed the germans to trade. 27 The unrra charter allowed it to operate in Germany to assist non-ethnic German displaced persons, but did not permit it to assist ethnic Germans. In 1948, after three years of occupation, the combined us and uk expenditure on relief food in Germany through garioa and other means stood at a total of close.5 billion (that were charged to the germans). Still, according to nicholas Balabkins, german food rations were deficient in composition and remained far below recommended minimum nutrition levels. 28 Officials in authority admitted that the distributed rations "represented a fairly rapid starvation level". 28 (see also American food policy in occupied Germany ). Reparations and exploitation edit further information: German reparations for World War ii the Allies confiscated large amounts of German intellectual property ( patents and copyrights, but also trademarks ). 29 Beginning immediately after the german surrender and continuing for the next two years the us pursued a vigorous program to harvest all technological and scientific know-how as well as all patents in Germany.
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23 From may 1945 until September 1947 the us, uk, and France exported German coal for.50/tonne, while the world price hovered closer to 2530 songs per tonne. During this period the Allies thus took roughly 200,000,000 out of the german economy from this source alone. In September 1947 the export price was raised but remained set at 57 below world-market prices. 23 In Germany the shortage of food was an assignment acute problem. According to the unrra in 194647 the average kilocalorie intake per day was estimated to be 1,080, 24 which according to Alan.
Milward was an amount insufficient for long-term health. 25 Other sources state that the kilocalorie intake in those years varied between as low as 1,000 and 1,500. Clayton reported to washington that "millions of people are slowly starving." 26 Germany received many offers from Western European nations to trade food for desperately needed coal and steel. Neither the Italians nor the dutch could sell the vegetables that they had previously sold in Germany, with the consequence that the dutch had to destroy considerable proportions of their crop. Denmark offered 150 tons of lard a month; Turkey offered hazelnuts; Norway offered fish and fish oil; Sweden offered considerable amounts of fats.
15 General Clay commissioned several expert studies about necessary changes in German economy 16 and stated There is no choice between being a communist on 1,500 calories a day and a believer in democracy on a thousand. In July 1947, President Harry. Truman rescinded on "national security grounds" 17 the punitive occupation directive jcs 1067, which had directed the us forces of occupation in Germany to "take no steps looking toward the economic rehabilitation of Germany or designed to maintain or strengthen the german economy." It was. The final version of the document "was purged of the most important elements of the morgenthau plan." 19 The restrictions placed on German heavy industry production were thus partly ameliorated, as permitted steel production levels were raised from 25 of pre-war capacity 4. 20 Economic consequences edit The hunger-winter of 1947, thousands protest against the disastrous food situation (March 31, 1947). The reduction in steel production that resulted from the first and the second level of industry plans meant that a steel production bottleneck ensued which forced other parts of the german industry to fall below their own permitted production levels.
The economy of the bizone finally hit rock bottom early in 1948 as a consequence of this. 21 Compounding the problems in the steel industry and their effects on the german economy as a whole was the prohibition against importing high-grade Swedish iron ore. Until that was lifted in 1948, german steel plants had to rely on low quality local ore which required almost twice the amount of coal to process. Moreover, the germans were also forced to sell their steel at wartime prices until April 1, 1948, which meant large losses for the industry. 22 Additionally, attempts to "decartelize" the german steel industry also contributed to the low output. The Allied Control council set the price for German coal at half what it cost to produce.
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Gress in a history of West Germany the morgenthau plan came to be seen as inflicting undue hardship, and so the approach was shifted, over time, to one encouraging German economic expansion. As part of this, the allowed levels of industrial capacity were raised. 11 According to Vladimir Petrov in Money and conquest: allied occupation currencies in World War ii the reason for the change in us occupation policy was almost exclusively based on economic considerations. Although a large part of the occupation costs were placed on the german economy, the us and the uk were increasingly forced to supply food imports to prevent mass starvation. 12 According to some historians the us government abandoned the morgenthau plan as policy in September 1946 with Secretary of State james. Byrnes ' speech Restatement of Policy on Germany. 13 Others have argued that credit should be given to former us president Herbert hoover who in one of his reports from Germany in 1947 argued for a change in occupation policy, amongst other things stating: There is the illusion that the new Germany left. It cannot be done unless we exterminate or move 25,000,000 people out. 14 Worries about the sluggish recovery of the european economy (which before the war was driven by the german industrial base) and growing soviet influence amongst a german population subject to food shortages thesis and economic misery, caused the joint Chiefs of Staff, and Generals Clay.
On that basis, he said, the nation will need large imports of food and raw materials to maintain a minimum standard of living. General agreement, he continued, had been reached on the types of German exports — coal, coke, electrical equipment, leather goods, beer, wines, spirits, toys, musical instruments, textiles and apparel — to take the place of the heavy industrial products which formed most of Germany's pre-war exports. 7 Timber exports from the us occupation zone were particularly heavy. Sources in the us government admitted that the purpose of this was the "ultimate destruction of the war potential of German forests." Extensive deforestation due to clear-felling resulted in a situation which could "be replaced only by long forestry development over perhaps a century.". 8 The first plan was subsequently followed by a number of new ones, essay the last signed in 1949. By 1950, after the virtual completion of the by-then much watered-down "level of industry" plans, equipment had been removed from 706 manufacturing plants in the west and steel production capacity had been reduced by 6,700,000 tons. 9 Moderation of policy edit beginning in mid-1946 American and British policy towards the german economy began to change, illustrated by byrnes's September speech restatement of policy on Germany 10 (also known as the "Stuttgart speech" or "Speech of hope. According to dennis. Bark and david.
of 1,500 listed manufacturing plants. 3, in January 1946 the, allied Control council set the foundation of the future german economy by putting a cap on German steel production capacity: the maximum allowed was set at about 5,800,000 tons of steel a year, equivalent to 25 of the prewar production. 4 The uk, in whose occupation zone most of the steel production was located, had argued for a less-limited reduction of 12 million tons of steel per year, but had to submit to the will of the us, france, and the soviet Union (which had. Steel plants thus made redundant were to be dismantled. Germany was to be reduced to the standard of life it had known at the height of the Great Depression (1932). 5 Car production was set to 10 of prewar levels, etc. 6 On February 2, 1946, a dispatch from Berlin reported: Some progress has been made in converting Germany to an agricultural and light industry economy, said Brigadier General William Henry Draper., chief of the American Economics division, who emphasized that there was general agreement. He explained that Germanys future industrial and economic pattern was being drawn for a population of 66,500,000.
The industrial plans for Germany were designs the Allies plan considered imposing on Germany in the aftermath. World War ii to reduce and manage germany's industrial capacity. 1, contents, background edit, at the, potsdam conference (JulyAugust 1945 with the us operating under influence of the. Morgenthau plan, 2 the victorious, allies decided to abolish the, german armed forces as well as all munitions factories and civilian industries that could support them. This included the destruction of all ship- and aircraft-manufacturing capability. Further, the victors decided that civilian industries that might have military potential were to be restricted. The restriction of the latter was calibrated with Germany's "approved peacetime needs which were defined based on the average european standard. In order to achieve this, each type of industry was subsequently reviewed by whom? to see how many factories Germany required under these minimum level-of-industry requirements.
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Borders of post-World War ii germany (1949). West Germany is shown in blue, east Germany is shown in red, The, saar protectorate under French economic control is shown in green. Ruhr Area, the industrial engine of West Germany, is shown in brown as it was to some extent under the control of the. International Authority for the ruhr. Pre-war German territory east of the Oder-neisse line is shown in gray, because it was assigned to poland or annexed by the, soviet Union. This included, silesia, germany's second-largest industrial center gender after the ruhr. West Berlin is shown in yellow.