On his succession to caliphate, muawia challenged him and led an army against him. The main part of hazrat Hasan's 40,000 troops under his personal command, was stationed in Medina, where a part of muawia's army met him. Hazrat Hasan's commander qays bin saad and his uncle Ibne Abbas led an army of 12,000 men against muawia's main forces at Maskin. Muawia bribed lbne Abbas and won him over but failed to attempt qays bin saad. Mughira bin Shaba was sent by muawia to hazrat Hasan for negotiations. He spread the rumour that hazrat Hasan had agreed to surrender. Some of hazrat Hasan's men got excited by this rumour and attempted to kill him. Hazrat Hasan being betrayed by his uncle and disgusted with the attitude and the disunity among his own men, decided to surrender.
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To that section of analysis hazrat Aly the Ismailis belong. "They take the view that as hazrat Aly having himself cooperated with the first three khaliphs, it is not now for us to judge the first three khaliphs, but to respect their memory as hazrat Aly himself did all his life according to historians even. "We believe that the Imamat belongs to the house of Prophet, but that for reasons best known to himself, hazrat Aly did not raise the question during the lifetime of the first three khaliphs and that is good enough for us not to raise the. "In this way, though Shias of Aly, we can sincerely join in the prayer that Allah may in His great mercy forgive the sins of all Muslims." - mowlana sultan Muhammad Shah - memoirs of Aga Khan, 1950 Page 5 hazrat Hasan Early life hazrat. He was a great favourite of his grandfather, the holy Prophet Muhammad, whom he resembled very much. He was a handsome man with artistic tastes and a quiet temperament. He had eight sons and seven daughters. He was kind, generous and hospitable. The caliphate: hazrat Hasan succeeded to the caliphate on his father, hazrat Aly's death on 17th Ramadhan,. at the age.
In spite of this, hazrat Aly succeeded in gathering an army of 40,000 men; but before he could proceed against muawia, who had now declared himself as Caliph, he was killed in the mosque of Kufa on 15th of Ramadhan,. by a kharajite called Ibn Muljim. Imamat: hazrat Aly is regarded as the 1st Imam by all the Shias and fuller as the 4th Caliph by all Muslims. Imamat has come down from the line of hazrat Aly as Spiritual leadership as opposed to the temporal leadership of the caliphate, although certain Imams like hazrat Aly and the fatimids have been Imams as well as Caliphs at the same time. Character: hazrat Aly was not only known for his bravery and courage and for his close relationship with the Prophet, but also for his vast learning and knowledge, and for his strength of character. Page 4 Ismailis - the Shia of Aly "Originally, after the death of the Prophet, the muslims were united and there was no question of Shia and Sunni until after the murder of Khalifa Uthman. Then the world of Islam was divided into two branches which in Arabic means two Shias, namely two sections, one was known as the Shia of hazrat Aly, the other as the Shia of muawia. These two remained until such time as Imam Hasan made his peace with muawia when muawia became the undisputed Caliph and the Shias of muawia became the great central stream of Islam and the majority (Sunnis). While the Shias of hazrat Aly remained as the other section (Shias).
Page 3 The battle of Naherwan: The arbitration was later held at a place called 'Adhruh'. This led to confusion and the arbitration court withdrew without any decision. In the meantime, the Khawarij became so troublesome to hazrat Aly that he had to proceed against them and defeat them at the battle of Naherwan. Death of hazrat Aly: Now muawia and hazrat Aly were face to face preparing for a final showdown. Muawia father's was stronger because he had the support of his strong Syrian army. They were all well paid and fresh for battle as they had done very little fighting in the past. Muawia had almost a year salon of peace to prepare himself. On the other hand, hazrat Aly's army was weak because it consisted of different groups. They were opposed to each other and all of them tired after the battles of Jamel, siffin and Naherwan.
The battle of Siffin: muawia was the governor of Syria and hazrat Aly wanted to depose him from his position. Muawia now raised the banner of revenge for hazrat Uthman. A battle was fought between them at Siffin. When muawia saw that hazrat Aly's army was about to win, he ordered the raising of Qurans on the spears and appealing for arbitration (peace). Hazrat Aly was opposed to this but had to accept it on the insistence of a section of his army. These very same people, later on, opposed hazrat Aly for accepting the arbitration. They withdrew from his camp and were known as the 'khawarij' for that reason.
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Then he declared hazrat Aly as his successor at the same place on 18th of Zul Hijjah, which is celebrated by the Shia as the Idd Ghadeer al-Khumm. Page 2 Sagifa bani saida: At the time of the Prophet's death in 11th Hijrah, hazrat Aly performed all his funeral ceremonies, while hazrat Abu bakr was chosen Caliph at a place called Saqifa bani saida. It is said that before the Prophet died, he wanted to make a will but was prevented from doing so by hazrat Umar. The caliphate: hazrat Abu bakr always consulted hazrat Aly and received his advice regarding the wars. At the time of his death, hazrat Abu bakr appointed hazrat Umar as his successor. Hazrat Umar continued to consult hazrat Aly and paid him due respect.
Hazrat Aly was one of the six members of the Shura (council) appointed by hazrat Umar at the time of his death. However, he was not selected and the caliphate went to hazrat Uthman. Hazrat Uthman proved to be a very weak ruler, partial to his family - the Umayyads, and was killed. Hazrat Aly was now recognized as Caliph in Medina in Hijrah. The battle of Jamel: On being recognized as Caliph, hazrat Aly had to face the opposition of Talha, zubair and aayesha (the legal Prophet's wife). There was a battle near Basra called the battle of Jamel (camel). In this battle, hazrat Aly won; Talha and Zubair were killed and aayesha was sent back to mecca in retirement.
1, therefore, hope that the religious Education teachers will avail themselves of the beneficial services that i am offering to them in these valuable lines. Al wa'ez hasan nazar Aly page 1 Mowlana murtaza aly 1st Imam of the Shia and the 4th Caliph of the muslims (10. H.) Early life: hazrat Aly was born in Mecca in 599. In the hashimite family of the Arabs. His father was Abu talib and mother was Fatima bint Asad.
Hazrat Aly remained in the care of the holy Prophet Muhammad. He married the Prophet's daughter Fatima by whom were born hazrat Hasan and hazrat Husayn. The Prophet's flight (Hijrah) to medina: At the time of Hijrah, hazrat Aly helped the Prophet by remaining behind in Mecca in his place. In Medina, he was made the Prophet's partner and brother in the new Muslim fraternity (brotherhood). Hazrat Aly was a brave young warrior, standard bearer of the muslim army. He fought in almost all the battles of the Prophet. Ghadeer al-Khumm: The Prophet made his last pilgrimage, hijjatul-Widdai, in. After making his last Hajj, on his way back to medina, the Prophet received the message of God regarding the declaration of hazrat Aly as his successor and Imam-e-mubin. The Prophet at once gathered all his followers at a place called Ghadeer al-Khumm.
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Again these volumes do not contain such exclusive chapters and lined parts as a faithful would like to read and remember easily and conveniently about a particular Imam. Such volumes contain such long and elaborate narrations of various historical facts here and there that they require very careful and patient study, long time, hard labour and in addition to all this, a very high price. Another point to be borne in mind is that whatever has been written about the Imams in these works is not free from prejudice that was brought about as a natural result of the bitter political rivalry that existed between various political parties such. You cannot find, therefore, a clear and impartial account of any Imam in most of the so called historic books. Under the above mentioned facts, it would not be an easy task for the average Ismaili to draw true information about his Imams from the extant books on history. The vast Ismaili literature which otherwise would have given true account of the Ismaili Imams' history, was almost totally destroyed through begot fanaticism of the saljuks and Mongols. It is only through hard labour of scientific research on the history of Islam that one can come across an impartial account of the Ismaili Imams.
Zul Ahmed for having very kindly provided photographs for this publication, and lqbal Mawji without whose assistance and co-operation it would have been impossible to publish this book. Al-wa'ez hasan nazar Ali Edmonton, Alberta july 11, 1983 Preface One of the fundamentals of Ismaili faith, after the demise of the last and final Prophet, has been the doctrine of the presence of the living Imam to substitute the Prophet in every period. It has, therefore, writer been of great importance for the faithful to have a vital knowledge of the history of the Imam, their regular and unbroken succession from generation to generation and their periodical guidance to the faithful according to the need of the times. With this end in view I have decided to issue these brief notes on the lives and works of each Imam. These notes will prove to be very useful and informative by our Religious Education teachers. The contents of these notes are based on bare historical facts whose veracity has been vouchsafed from original and reliable sources. This sort of work on the history of the Imams is not something new and I have not intended to launch on a new scheme of work or to claim that i am pioneer in writing the history of the Imams. In fact a considerable information is forthcoming about the Imams in various books on History written by various Muslim and non-Muslim authors. But these voluminous books are practically of little benefit to a layman and average reader who can neither spare time nor money to avail himself of these books.
our Jamat. Shiraz jiwani Chairman Acknowledgements i am grateful to Abbas Al-Hamdani. London, Professor of Islamic History, islamia college, karachi, pakistan, research Assistant, Ismailia association of pakistan, who has gone a long way in building up my Academic paper. I have been given to understand that presently he is a resident Professor at the Institute of Ismailis Studies, london. In most of my work, i have used his notes, as well as the material from the "Shia of India by john Norman Hollister.,. D., and "History of the Ismailia". My gratitude also goes to our Chairman, Shiraz jiwani and Honorary secretary Shiraz kanji for their encourgement which has been a great source of inspiration for me to revise the work on the history of the Imams. Lastly, i wish to thank. Ramzan Surani and.
Chapter v - alamut and Imamat. Chapter vi - persia and lmamat. Chapter vii - indo-pak and lmamat. Chapter viii - mowlana Shah Karim Al-Husayni. Aga Khan iv 86, holy ginan, firman. Mubarak "I hope more and more useful study will be made of the history of Islam and the history of Ismaili general caliphate in Egypt and the caliphate of our cousins in Spain.", mowlana sultan, muhammad Shah - (Message to garden Library, karachi, 1951) "you must. Message from the Chairman: The Edmonton Regional Committee of Ismailia association for Canada takes great pleasure in publishing this book "Brief History of our Imams" compiled by our Religious Education coordinator, Al-wa'ez hasan nazarali. I hope this volume will prove rewarding for both teachers and students of Ismaili.
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Arabia and the Imamat, chapter 1 lst Imam Mowlana Aly 2nd Imam Mowlana husayn 3rd Imam Mowlana zain al-Abidin 4th Imam Mowlana muhammad al-Baqir 5th Imam Mowlana ja'far as-Sadiq, history of the Ismaili Imams Tarikh-e imamat. By al-waez alijah Hasan Husayn nazar Ali. Table of Contents, firman Mubarak, message from The, london chairman. Acknowledgements, preface, chapter i - arabia and Imamat. Chapter ii - syria and Imamat. Chapter iii -. Africa and Imamat. Chapter iv - egypt and Imamat.